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Treatment of meningitis
Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord. Inflammatory process can be caused by viruses, bacteria or fungi.
Causes of emergency
In the vast majority of cases, meningitis is caused by 3 types of bacteria: meningococcus, hemophilic rod and pneumococcus. These microorganisms can inhabit the upper respiratory tract of a healthy person and do not cause any painful reactions of the body. However, in some cases, these bacteria can enter the brain, which leads to the development of meningitis.
In some cases, meningitis develops due to trauma, as well as against the weakening of the immune system after the diseases. The provoking factor is excessive consumption of alcohol, spleen removal, pneumococcal infection, as well as some infectious and inflammatory diseases of the ear and nose.
In rare cases, the cause of meningitis is the E. coli or Klebsiella. These microorganisms, the disease is usually caused by trauma to the spinal cord or brain, as well as when blood is contaminated.
Inflammation of the membranes of the brain can also be caused by viruses, parasites, tumors, fungi. Sometimes the inflammatory process is a complication in the surgical procedure.
Most often, meningitis develops sharply. The disease is characterized by fever, pain in the muscles, general weakness. When a meningococcal infection occurs, a rash is formed; With pneumococcal meningitis - develops a runny nose and pneumonia; With enterovirus infection - gastrointestinal disorders; When parotitis - a violation of the salivary glands.
One of the most striking symptoms of meningitis is a severe headache. As a rule, the pain grows very quickly and makes people scream or moan. In the future, there is nausea, vomiting. With aural or visual irritations, the pain intensifies.
About a day after the appearance of the first symptoms, the patient's condition deteriorates sharply. There is confusion, drowsiness, irritability. Develops edema of brain tissue, which significantly complicates the blood flow, which resembles the symptom of a stroke. Possible the development of coma and death.
Diagnosis of meningitis includes examining the patient, as well as conducting a general blood test and spinal puncture. Additional diagnostic methods can be bacteriological, immunological studies, chest x-ray, examination of the fundus, computed tomography, electroencephalography.
Types of disease
There are the following types of meningitis:
Depending on the localization of the inflammatory process, leptomeningitis - inflammation of the arachnoid and soft membranes of the brain - is distinguished, and pachymeningitis is an inflammation of the hard shell of the brain.
According to the etiology, bacterial, viral, fungal meningitis is isolated. By the nature of the inflammatory process, meningitis is acute, subacute and chronic. By origin, meningitis is primary and secondary - arising on the background of a different disease.
Action by the patient
If you suspect a meningitis (you or your friend) urgently need to call an ambulance. If the expectation of medical care is long, then it is necessary to go to the nearest hospital. In this case, the account goes for hours, because meningitis develops rapidly and gives complications.
Treatment of meningitis is carried out in a hospital. The basis of treatment of the disease is antibacterial therapy (for bacterial meningitis). Interferons and broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed, as the results of lumbar puncture analyzes will not be immediately known. Antibacterial drugs are administered intravenously, sometimes endolumbically.
Diuretics are prescribed to prevent brain edema, the use of which should be considered with their ability to wash calcium out of the body.
To reduce the manifestation of intoxication, detoxification therapy is carried out, for example, administration of saline, a solution of 5% glucose and other drugs.
Meningitis can cause serious complications, such as deafness, hydrocephalus, epilepsy, mental retardation. The likelihood of complications increases with delayed treatment.
Some forms of meningitis can be prevented by vaccination. The vaccine lasts 3 years, and its effectiveness is 80%. The vaccine does not save children from meningitis up to 18 months.