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What is sepsis?
Sepsis, translated from Greek, means putrefaction. This is a serious infectious disease of a person that develops as a systemic inflammatory reaction when infectious agents (bacteria or unicellular fungi) enter the bloodstream or their toxins. Among people who are not related to medicine, sepsis is often called contamination of blood. It is characterized by a severe progressive course and no tendency to spontaneous recovery. Despite the increased possibilities of antibacterial and antifungal therapy, the mortality rate for sepsis remains quite high.
Causes of the disease
The causative agents of sepsis can be any bacteria (staphylococcus, streptococcus, pneumococcus, meningococcus, salmonella, enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella) or fungi (genus Candida, Aspergillus). The origin of sepsis is due not so much to the properties of the pathogen itself, as to the state of the human immune system, in particular to the inability to localize the pathogen in the primary focus of the infection. One and the same staphylococcus can in some individuals be on the mucous membranes without the development of any pathology, and in others - cause sepsis with a fatal outcome. The most common sepsis develops in people with weakened immunity due to serious diseases, extensive operations, excessive blood loss, malnutrition or the use of immunosuppressive drugs.
The ingress of infectious agents into the bloodstream can occur either during the generalization of a local infection, or when microorganisms are introduced from outside during surgical interventions, catheterization of veins and other medical manipulations. The primary septic focus can be any infection of soft tissues, bones, joints and internal organs: extensive wound or burn surface, purulent skin diseases (carbuncle, furuncle, phlegmon), osteomyelitis, urinary tract infections, etc. Particular attention is required for infectious complications after childbirth or Abortion, the "gateway" of infection in this case is the mucous membrane of the uterus. At a time when medical abortion was banned, and operations were performed underground in non-sterile conditions, sepsis was the leading cause of death for pregnant women.
Symptoms of sepsis
The peculiarity of sepsis is that its symptoms are similar regardless of the pathogen, since they are a certain response of the human body to a super-strong infectious lesion, with which immunity is not able to cope in the focus of infection.
The clinical picture consists of the symptoms of general intoxication and manifestations of the disease caused by infectious foci. Intoxication is manifested by severe weakness, loss of appetite, fever with chills, tachycardia, lowering of blood pressure and shortness of breath. Multiple lesions of organs and systems characterized by the development of cardiac, respiratory, renal, adrenal insufficiency and the like. The examination reveals high leukocytosis, less leukopenia, sharply increased ESR, lymphopenia, hypoproteinemia.
Diagnosis of sepsis is based on the clinical picture of the disease, the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in the blood, the detection of septic foci in various organs and tissues.
The treatment of sepsis is complex, including massive antibacterial or antifungal therapy, detoxification therapy. Must be performed in an intensive care unit. In some cases, transfusion of blood components may be required.
The prognosis with any form of sepsis is always serious. The earlier treatment is started, the higher the probability of complete recovery. The complexity of diagnosis and treatment of sepsis is the presence of a large number of erased forms, when the clinical picture is not so bright.
Prevention of sepsis is based on correct and timely treatment of local purulent processes and observance of aseptic conditions during operations and other medical manipulations.
To the prevention of sepsis can also be attributed to the competent use of antibacterial agents. It should be understood that any bacteria and fungi can develop resistance to drugs. The more powerful antibiotics we use, the stronger and "smarter" our opponents become. The use of antibiotics of recent generations without appropriate evidence deprives us of the means of struggle in really serious situations, when these medicines could save lives for people. Any antibiotic should be used strictly in accordance with the prescriptions of your doctor.